Sun Yat-sen

 
Sun Yat-sen is praised as a respectable the forerunner of democratic revolution of modern China, and he made a great contribution to establish new China.

Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) was a Chinese democratism reformer, the founder of the Republic of China (1912-1949), and the advocator of Three People's Principles (Nationalism, Democracy and People's Livelihood). After the revolution of 1911, Sun Yat-sen was elected as the provisional president of Republic of China, and he was referred to as the “Father of the Nation” of the Republic of China in 1940. According to his last wish, the tomb of Sun Yat-sen was moved to Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing City in 1929. Sun Yat-sen is praised as a respectable “forerunner of democratic revolution” by Chinese Communist party and the “National Father” by Chinese Nationalist Party. As the forerunner of democratic revolution, Sun Yat-sen left lots of treasured heritage for his successor politically, and he made a great contribution to establish new China.

Background

Sun Yat-sen was born in a poor family in Cuiheng Village, Xiangshan County (now Zhongshan City now) of Guangdong Province. He studies in Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Honolulu of US, and has been a doctor in Macau and Guangzhou.

Overthrowing Imperialism

Sun Yat-sen devoted himself to overthrow imperialism and established a new society. He joined the revolutions positively. In 1905, the first democratic revolution party (United League of China) for the capitalist class in China was founded, and Sun Yat-sen served as prime minister, and firstly he proposed the political principle of Three People's Principles (Nationalism, Democracy and People's Livelihood). Wuchang uprising broke up on Oct. 10, 1911, and Sun Yat-sen was elected as the provisional president of Republic of China after that, finally the Qing Dynasty withdrawn the historical stage in 1912.

Hard Political Life

Although Sun Yat-sen is considered one of the greatest leaders of modern China, his political life was one of constant struggle and frequent exile. He led armed revolts for about ten times and lived in exile for several times, although failed, he never stopped to publicize the thought to fight, and more and more people joined the revolutions. He founded the Chinese revolutionary party in 1914 when he lived in exile in Japan. After the success of the revolution, he was isolated by warlords who controlled much of the nation, and quickly he fell out of power and had to leave. With the assistance of Chinese Communist party and Soviet Russia Communist party, in 1919 Sun Yat-sen changed the name of Chinese revolutionary party as Chinese Communist party, and he took office as Great President when the official government was established in Guangzhou in 1921.

In January, 1924, the first National People's Congress of Chinese Communist party, and the new Three People's Principles was proposed. Unlike the old one, the new principle specifically put forward the guiding principle of anti-imperialism. Meanwhile, the congress realized the first cooperation of Chinese Communist and Nationalist Parties. Besides, Huangpu Military Academy was built later on. Sun Yat-sen was not alive to see his party consolidate the power over the country during the Northern Expedition. His party, which formed a fragile alliance with the Communists, split into two parts after his death.

Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum

According to his last wish, Sun Yat-sen was buried in Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum on Mt. Zijinshan of Nanjing City in 1929. Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum includes the tomb for the Sun Yat-sen, and other attached commemorative buildings, and the main buildings are built in a central axis. The layout of mausoleum shapes like a huge bell, and all architecture style are in Chinese style. The whole construction lasts from 1929 to 1931, and it takes an area of 80,000 square meters. With its back on mountains, Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum is surrounded by beautiful scenery and many splendid commemorative buildings, which is named as the “First Mausoleum in China’s Modern Architecture history”.

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