Listed as national famous historical and cultural city, Chengdu deserves the reputation as the Land of Abundance. The discovery of the Jinsha site in 2001 suggests the city history of Chengdu had been brought forward to 611 B.C as the center of the Bronze Age during the state of Shu.
Western Zhou Period (1046BC-771BC)
According to the record, the history of Chengdu can be dated back to the middle fifth century BC. From that time, the ninth emperor, Kaiming of the Shu Kingdom, shifted the capital from Guangdu County to the current location and named it Chengdu. The name originated from the procedures of building city by Emperor Kaiming who believed that the new location would take two year to become a town and three years to become a capital and Chengdu, literally means a finished capital. Since then, Chengdu still has maintained its status as the Province's capital city and major economic and political center.
Qin and Han Dynasties Period (221BC-220AD)
During Qin and Han dynasties, Chengdu became prosperous for its developed economy and culture. In 316 BC, the Shu State was conquered by Qin State. At this point, a new city was built and was an early form of present-day Chengdu. In 106BC, Chengdu was one of the 13 states established by Emperor Wu of Han. Between the late Qin and early Han periods, Chengdu displaced the Central Plain, being rated as a self-sufficient and strategically located region. Until in Western Han Dynasty, Chengdu was one of the six big cities of China with a population of 400,000.
Five Dynasties Period (907-979)
During the Five Dynasties Period (907-979), the emperor Mengchang of Later Shu who favored hibiscus mutabilis ordered people plant trees on the city walls. When they blossomed, the entire Chengdu became as beautiful as brocade hence the nickname Furong City.
Song and Yuan Dynasties Period (960-1368)
Song and Yuan dynasties were boom periods for Shu Brocade that the scale of the silk industry was extended. A variety of brocade emerged, such as the flowing water with flying fish, peacock and lucky peony. During the rule of Emperor Renzong of Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127), the first paper currency in China's history appeared in Chengdu which was named “jiao zi”. In 1257, the army of Yuan captured Chengdu and altered it “Sichuan Province”.
Ming and Qing Dynasty Period (1368-1912)
In 1378, the eleventh son of the Taizu of Ming, Zhuchun was honored as King of Shu and made Chengdu as its prince city. In 1644, a rebel leader, Zhang Xianzhong scored Chengdu and established a short-lived Daxi and renamed Chengdu Xijing. During Qing Dynasty, the government regained Chengdu. In 1863, the general Shi Dakai of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1851-1864) failed to invade Chengdu.
Republican Period (1912-1949)
In 1911, the Constitutional Party claimed Sichuan has divorced from the government of Qing Dynasty in Chengdu and set military government in Chengdu. During the World War Two, the Chinese Nationalist Party under the rule of Chiang Kai-shek fled to Sichuan to escape the invasion of Japanese forces.
After Liberation (since 1949)
On December 27, 1949, Chinese People's Liberation Army marched into Chengdu and Chengdu became the encampment of western Sichuan area. In 1952, the government made Chengdu the capital city of Sichuan.
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